Let’s talk about groups of paints and determine the main advantages and disadvantages of certain materials for painting.
1 water paints
Emulsion paints are diluted with water (do not dissolve), their binding base and coloring particles are distributed in an aqueous medium, forming a stable emulsion. After drying, do not wash off with water. But from them it is easy to wash hands and tools (until the material is dry). Emulsion paints are economical, distinguished by their environmental friendliness, fire safety. Well fit almost any surface. Metals to avoid corrosion, you must first primed. Emulsion paints can not be applied to the surface, previously painted with glossy paints, glue paints. The same can be attributed to lacquered surfaces. In turn, after the emulsion paints, you can use any paints and enamels. Emulsion paints dry quickly and do not have a sharp unpleasant smell. They are resistant to alkaline effects.
Emulsion paints are divided into: water-based, acrylic, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), latex, water-dispersion and silicone. Many believe that water-based and water-dispersion paints are one and the same. All of them do not have features to exfoliate, are permeable to air and water vapor, that is, they “breathe”. Suitable for rooms with high humidity, not frost-resistant, but for a long time retain their color.
But the differences are still there. Opaque water-based paints are gradually washed away with time, and water-dispersive moisture-resistant, and therefore suitable for repeated washing. In addition, water-dispersion paints are mainly white, and water-based paint hit a variety of colors. Water-dispersion paints can not be applied at temperatures below + 5 ° C.
The acrylic resins serve as a binding element for acrylic paints. These paints are highly elastic (adapted to the specificity of wood) and have great strength. High-quality acrylic paints capable of blocking hairline cracks up to 0.5 mm. It is a pity that they are quite expensive. Their cheaper counterparts are made on the basis of acrylic copolymers. Acrylic paints are cold-resistant, but only after complete drying. They have low gas permeability, and therefore can well protect against corrosion, for example, reinforced concrete. Suitable for alkaline bases, but they can be applied to fresh plaster no earlier than in a month. The reason for this is low gas-tightness: carbon dioxide is involved in the plaster hardening process, and this process is rather long.
Acrylic paints are not suitable for buildings with damp walls. These paints are beautifully tinted and UV resistant, perfectly preserving color. They also combine water repellency and vapor permeability. Possess the highest mechanical resistance.
Latex paints are the most expensive of emulsion paints. They are made with the addition of latex. This gives a strong water-repellent effect, and therefore you can wash the surface as much as you want. They are able to tighten hairline cracks up to 1 mm. Latex paints are applied on different surfaces: structured wallpaper, walls (concrete, plaster, brick, drywall), ceilings. Dry in 20-60 minutes. But their light fastness is lower than that of emulsion acrylic paints and PVA.
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) paints
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) paints, as opposed to latex, are the most budget. However, they also have low water resistance, and with regular washing the coating is gradually washed off with water. The paint is eco-friendly, it is highly resistant to light, oil and grease, suitable for internal use, especially for ceiling painting.
Here, the binding element is emulsified silicone resins. Silicone resins are sometimes even added to acrylic paints. Silicone paints on drying form a water-repellent surface, but perfectly pass air and water vapor. They have high elasticity and are capable of blocking hairline cracks up to 2 mm. Silicone paints can be applied to fresh plaster after 48 hours (and not after 30 days as acrylic). Silicone paints can be applied via paint sprayer to all types of mineral surfaces.
They are compatible with acrylic latex and mineral paints. They can even be applied to old silicate paint. Silicone coatings are resistant to dirt, and also prevent the development of microorganisms. Their only drawback is the high cost. Therefore, they are used mainly for decoration, especially if they want to emphasize the prestige of the building.
2 paints on an organic solvent
The binding element of alkyd paints is an alkyd resin. Alkyd paints include enamel and oil paints. Suitable for painting plastered surfaces, as well as wooden and metal substrates (for example, metal radiators). After drying, non-toxic, waterproof.
The oil paints popular in the past are made on the basis of drying oil. White spirit, turpentine, solvent naphtha or gasoline serve as diluents. They are quite small, but dry for a very long time (up to several days). When drying, they release harmful substances, therefore they are more suitable for outdoor use. Their significant drawback is that over the years the painted surface turns yellow.
Enamel paints are made on the basis of varnish and because of this they have high gloss and look very beautiful. Enamel paints are used for paint metal, appliances, wood surfaces, walls (plastered and plastered) and so on. They can be used for both indoor and outdoor use. Nitro-enamel dries very quickly – 15-45 minutes. Enamel paints are waterproof and resistant to rust and light.
3 silicate paints
Silicate paints are made on the basis of liquid glass, they can be classified as mineral. This is one of the best ways to protect the facade. Characteristics of silicate paints: vapor and air permeability, increased resistance to temperature changes and UV light, friability, poor reaction to water. It should be borne in mind that silicate paints are not just stable, they are almost indelible. Silicate paints are diluted with water and contain alkali – take care of your eyes and skin. They can not be applied to surfaces previously painted with acrylic or alkyd paints, and also applied to glass, ceramic, stone, metal surfaces. But they are suitable for alkaline surfaces, for example, plasters. The primer before painting should also be silicate.
Silicate paints cannot protect walls from atmospheric moisture. With heavy rains, the water, though not for long, lingers in the walls. However, when bad waterproofing of the foundation they are very useful if the humidity in the walls is higher than atmospheric. The color range of silicate paints is limited due to the alkali contained in the composition.
4 glue paints
Made from water-based organic polymers. Eco-friendly, as in the composition there are no toxic or harmful chemical compounds. Their properties are similar to emulsion paints, but adhesive paints are less resistant to moisture, so the front of the application is very limited – such materials are suitable only for painting dry rooms. Glue paints are produced in a dry form and are diluted with water immediately before use.
Casein paints are based on protein components, such paints are suitable for both exterior painting and interior work. Well lay on plaster, concrete, brick. Of all the glue paints casein the most resistant and beautiful.
Dextrinized paints on bone glue can be used only for interior work, as they have poor water resistance. Paints are easy to handle, environmentally friendly and well preserved in dry climates.
Available in a variety of colors. However, like all adhesive compositions, they are destroyed by the action of carbon dioxide and moisture. In poorly ventilated areas and at high humidity, the organic composition of the adhesive paint becomes a habitat for various microbes and mold. And the surface quickly deteriorate.
Types of paint brushes
Many people do not even suspect that paint brushes and repair brushes simply amaze with their abundance and functionality. Usually only one tool is used in all situations, but is this correct? So, let’s see in detail what kinds of brushes are.
Flywheels (KM) are huge fluffy brushes made from natural fibers and with the addition of synthetics (nylon), have a round shape. Their diameter is 60-65 mm, and the length of hairs reaches 180 mm. Usually used for painting large surfaces, washing, or for whitewashing. They are highly resistant to various solvents and other aggressive substances, they tolerate high temperature differences and are not afraid of hot water. When interacting with the working surface, they bend a little, but then immediately straighten.
Finishing brushes (CMA) – an improved type of brushes that I use to apply glue or casein paint on various surfaces. They are based on natural horsehair (50%) and artificial bristles (nylon 50%), which allows you to evenly apply a layer of coating on a specific surface. There are two types of such brushes: round and rectangular. Their diameter is 120-170 mm, and the length of hairs is 100 mm.
Hand-brush (KR) – this is a small round brush, used for painting wooden windows or pipes. Their diameter ranges from 26 to 54 mm. Consist of pure bristles and horsehair, have a round shape. The center of this tool is empty, which allows it to accumulate paint material. Not recommended for use with adhesives and calcareous substances, as the hairs stick to the adhesive base. Usually this tool is called simply – a round paint brush.
Filleted (FKF) – these are small brushes with a fairly comfortable handle and coarse white bristles. They are used on small surfaces to delineate lines and paint difficult to reach places. Brush diameter makes 6-18 mm.
Radiator – a great device for applying paint on hard-to-reach places: seams or bends. The name itself suggests that they are ideal for dyeing batteries (radiators).
Paint brush fleytsevaya (KF) – a flat wide brush from 25 to 100 mm with a comfortable handle. It is made of bristle and badger hair. Ideal for removing blemishes that could arise from other brushes.
Brush synthetic flat (KP), or brush flat with artificial bristles – this is a synthetic brush. It has a special property: its fibers, unlike natural fibers, retain their original (flat) shape in the process of using. It is great for paints diluted with water. Such a tool ideally holds the composition not only on the outer part of nylon fibers, but also in their inner base.
A trimming brush (SCHT) is a hard and very rigid brush that consists of spine or semi-spine bristles. They are used for finishing freshly applied paint. She very effectively eliminates all the irregularities caused by other devices.
Types of paint finishes
Each type of finish, like a dye, has its own subtleties and nuances, but the wall painting technique also contains general recommendations that remain unchanged, we will display them:
• Before starting to paint, the surface must be prepared, leveled, cleaned and primed.
• Drawing is conducted in the chosen way and the paint diluted to a certain consistence.
• Application is top-down to minimize the possibility of streaks.
• Almost always there is a rule of applying several thin layers of paint than a thick one.
• The instruction does not bypass the hard-to-reach places that you have to paint with a brush, for example, with the roller technique chosen.
Otherwise, the separation under certain application technologies goes further.
A fairly fashionable way of applying the dye, which is also at the same time an element of decoration. For
textured relief material suitable texture, dense, thick texture, which resembles even more putty.
Drawing in this way is interesting and as follows:
• The textured mix is applied with a spatula to the surface prepared by standard methods.
• Then it is held on the selected tool.
• After 48 hours, the surface dries and can be applied to the finish.
It is worth noting that the technique is very simple application, but the relief painting of the walls at the same time is able to offer a huge number of appearance options. After all, the only “stop crane” in this case is only your imagination.
You can choose from popular reliefs, for example, brick masonry, “bark beetle”, waves, aging effect, Marseilles wax, or you can come up with something of your own.
The second option can be attributed to the work, in which the first place is painting the walls with a sponge.
Sponge application is not just an original method of painting the surface, it is also a certain style, which, thanks to the chaotic and unsystematic application, always remains completely unique, authoring, if you want.
And the whole process is really very simple:
• Dye of several colors, as a rule, dark and light shades is necessary.
• At first a darker shade is applied to the wall with a brush or roller.
• As soon as the plane dries, you can begin applying the second layer with a sponge.
• Chaotic, light touches, paint is applied over the entire surface, creating a completely unique pattern.
Another incredibly interesting option – painting the walls with a gradient. Behind the name is a simple transition from light to dark tone or vice versa. For work, you will need three shades of the same paint color – light, dark and medium, masking tape, roller and several brushes.
The process itself looks like this:
• Scotch separates the staining area.
• The area is painted in a light color paint.
• The lower part of the wall is painted in a dark shade.
• In the middle of the wall is applied medium hue, mixed from dark and light paint.
• The surface above is painted in a light shade.
The most important thing is the transition. It depends on him the whole style of the gradient. It is necessary for it to be carried out with a dry brush over the painted wall at the transition boundaries until the applied material has dried on the surface.
Another interesting point in the painting work is painting the walls with stripes. The style is quite fashionable and practical, after all, the strip can successfully change visual perception of any room.
The work will require several colors of the dye, depending on how many colors you want to see on the strips and a simple masking tape.
Paints and varnishes will be applied in this way:
• The surface is painted in the main color.
• After drying, marking is done for future stripes.
• All marking is pasted over with scotch tape.
• Staining is carried out in the second color for those stripes that are defined by marking.
• Scotch is removed after a while and the entire surface in the strip, smooth and strictly delineated along the boundaries.
Starting from simple application of dye and ending with interesting techniques in dyeing, there is always a need for step-by-step work, both with preparation and with dye.